Ep. 38 – Reading Comprehension & SEL Comprehension

(Promised lesson resources from Episode 38 of the Not Your Normal Social Emotional Learning PODCAST are below this introductory text.)

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This might be hard, at first, to believe, but many educators don’t fully understand what kids’ brains need so they can remember and use what they read.  According to Daniel Willingham, a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia who has long studied the best ways to teach reading … fact-based and experience-based knowledge often gets left out of teachers’ reading instruction efforts. Well-intentioned teachers help kids learn to sound out letters, and then form individual words … a process educators refer to as decoding individual words, yet some of those same teachers are baffled by the fact that so many kids have trouble comprehending the full content of what they’ve “decoded.” Willingham contends, and I think this makes perfect sense… that lack of knowledge about the subject about which they’re asked to read is the reason for lack of comprehension during reading exercises… even when they can read individual words in a book or on a work sheet.

In other words… Even though many so-called “poor readers” can sound out words when they see them in print, they often do not comprehend most of what they’re sounding out.  Comprehension, it turns out, is a whole other ‘ball game,’ and it requires at least 2 other layers of enrichment besides the ‘decoding’ skill:   LAYER #1: a Continually expanding vocabulary, which needs to be exercised in their daily lives and interactions, and, equally important …  LAYER #2: factual and experience-based knowledge of the subjects they’re reading about.    In a word: RELEVANCE. In 7 words:  IN WHAT WAYS DOES THIS MATTER TO ME?    In 8 words: How does this show up in my life?   Here’s an extreme example, just to make the point:  Reading a book about a game that kids have played and enjoyed is going to gain a lot more ‘traction,’ in other words achieve a lot more ‘comprehension,’ than a book about scientific theories, because #1, the kids won’t have the necessary vocabulary to bring out the meaning of the combined words and sentences, and #2 the kids won’t have any lived experiences to relate to the combined words and sentences.


So what does this have to do with students’ social, emotional and life skills learning?  Well, most of us agree that for general well being and success, kids need to grow in openness to others’ perspectives (a close ‘cousin’ of empathy).  They also need to increase their capacity and willingness to be personally accountable and take responsibility.  They need to notice and be able to read social clues.  They need to be aware of and appropriately express their own feelings.  They need to engage in mutually respectful relationships, and on and on … and on …  

Those are mighty big concepts and simply discussing them, or reading stories about them, or having a lesson or 2 or 3 that illustrate those concepts in action has not been shown to create deep or long lasting impacts on children’s behaviors … BUT … there is a way to enliven RELEVANCE, which creates ENGAGEMENT, which has been shown to INCREASE retention and carry over influence, (often referred to as transfer of learning). I’m talking about carefully and respectfully designed peer group discussions, which are structured around wide ranging, not-so-predictable, but topic-related questions.  Questions to which students in the group will not necessarily have the same answers, but questions to which most of students will have answers that the other students will be interested in, which works to everyone’s advantage.  How?  

When kids collaboratively answer and discuss questions, based on their own knowledge, understanding and life experiences, they gain the benefit of self-expression, of course,  That process of self-expression also establishes ownership of what they know, which they and everyone in the peer group discussion observes and shares, for present and future reference, in the classroom and on the playground… with more and more independence and self-sufficiency.

When we want kids to grow their comprehension, in other words, their understanding about, and ownership of: •beneficial ideas, •feelings, •behaviors, •responses and •interactions… we have to do less talking while enabling (and empowering) the kids do more talking, in situations that naturally get other kids to listening, learning and sharing.  


Ready for a practical example?  

Perhaps you have some kids in your class who are whispering in front of other kids, and feelings are getting hurt.  You’ve tried lectures, you’ve tried reading books with stories about hurt feelings, and all of that has value, none of it is wasted or wrong, but… for all of that positive guidance and information to get “owned” by the kids, so they actually act on what they know, long term … for everyone’s sake, including your own … a different approach – one that increases kids’ vocabulary and relates to their experiential knowledge needs to be activated and anchored.

The thing is:  whispering covers a      w i d e     range of interactions between people… and so one important key to success will be to expand the kids’ spoken and  visual vocabulary around words and actions associated with WHISPERING.   

Below you will see pictures of all kinds of whispering interactions, with accompanying questions that invite students to discuss what they see in each picture. For instance, you’ll see kids whispering in class.  You’ll see one child whispering a secret to Santa.  You’ll see a few kids giggling and whispering, and you’ll see a picture of kids whispering while one person is excluded… in other words, the full gamut… not just the single kind of whispering that causes hurt feelings.  Conducting a peer group discussion that includes this much relevant variety is extremely beneficial for increasing students’ comprehension … see what you think. And if you try showing these pictures (or others you find on the internet), I would love to hear how it goes for you. Also, if you have any questions or problems, please let me know – I would love to help you through to your most satisfying experience with these resources. Really.

Notice that the pictures and questions do not focus immediately on solving the problem of hurtful whispering.

That is not the way to bring kids into a discussion, in order to increase, expand and deepen their comprehension.  BUT the right kinds of questions ARE the way, and the right kinds of questions are  OPEN-ENDED.  Open-ended questions that introduce relevant new vocabulary, and that do NOT overtly point to the behavior problems that are causing problems are your key to success.  We CAN trust kids to resolve their own problems and challenges, on their own, by gaining new comprehension about the effects of different behaviors on different people, through well-structured, peer group discussions.

Because well structured peer group discussions provide opportunities to all the individual kids in the group to answer questions, each from their own individual perspective … which will be engaging and interesting to all the students because the subject matter relates deeply and broadly to their personal experiences. The open-ended questions gently invite students to look at familiar situations from different perspectives – based on their own experiences and incorporating their expanded vocabulary  –  which enables them to integrate their classmates’ perspectives with their own perspectives, in a completely unforced way, so the learning is real, and really gets used in the kids’ real life interactions.


Relating all this back to reading,  when kids are tested on reading comprehension as a separate skill, divorced from any subject with which they’re personally familiar, they’re at an unfair disadvantage. On the other hand, kids who come to school with more prior knowledge  are at an unfair ADVANTAGE — and we all know that those are often the wealthier kids.  But it does NOT have to be that way.  

Why?  Because kids learn from other kids …. ORGANICALLY… and we, as their educators, are in prime positions to create the most constructive learning environments for EVERY student’s social, emotional and life skills development when we create opportunities that align with how every student’s brain acquires knowledge – – – naturally.  


Below are the visuals and open-ended questions for a peer group discussion that will get kids more mindful about all kinds of whispering and the effects of different kinds of whispering:

Whispering
Whispering amongst friends.
  1. Where do you think these kids might be? 
  2. What do you think is happening in this picture? 
  3. Why do you suppose people have two ears instead of just one? (PEOPLE NEED TWO EARS TO BE ABLE TO KNOW WHERE DIFFERENT SOUNDS ARE COMING FROM. When people can only hear out of one ear, they can’t tell where sounds are coming from. Do any of you know someone who can only hear with one ear?)
  4. What do you suppose it’s like for this boy when these two girls are whispering into each of his ears? What if they’re whispering different things? What would that be like for him?

Whispering in the theater
Whispering to not disturb others
  1. Where are these people? Why are they whispering?
  2. Who knows what ‘demonstrate’ means?
  3. Who would like to *demonstrate what whispering sounds like for our whole group? 
  4. How far away do you think one person can hear another person who is whispering? Shall we do an experiment to see how far we can hear whispers?
  • Ask for a volunteer. Whisper in the volunteer’s ear, while sitting or standing very close to the other kids...then test at further and further distances ’til your words can’t be heard … or make up your own experiment and demonstration to engage different volunteers and the group.

COULD ANY OF YOU HEAR THAT?  WHY or WHY NOT?


Whispering can be hurtful
Hurt feelings happen when people feel left out.
  1. How many kids do you see in this picture?
  2. Is the girl who is alone close enough to hear what the other girls are saying? Why do you think that? 
  3. If the girl who is alone can not hear what the other girls are saying, do you think she can guess what they’re whispering about? What do you think they’re whispering about? 
  4. Who thinks we can guess a lot about what other people say, or how they’re feeling, even though they don’t tell us, or we can’t hear them? Why do you think that? Shall we test your theory?  
  5. Ask if anyone would like to volunteer demonstrating body language. Once you’ve chosen a few volunteers to take turns demonstrating different forms of body language, whisper:
  • Feeling afraid
  • Feeling stubborn
  • Feeling bored    (If there was more than one volunteer, thank the first child, then ask for another volunteer to provide a few more demonstrations)
  • Feeling sleepy
  • Feeling curious
  • Feeling shy

Whispering a secret.
  1. Who knows what a secret is?
  2. Why do you think people have secrets?
  3. Did anyone ever tell you a secret? What was that like? How did that make you feel? Did you keep that secret after your friend told it to you?

Whispering in front of others
Whispering can hurt feelings of other people.
  1. How does the girl who is standing by herself feel?  Do her feelings matter?  Why do you think that?  What do you think the girl who is by herself will do next?    (Thinking Forward in Time)
  2. Sometimes, people hurt other people’s feelings. Why do you think they do that? (Perspective Taking)
  3. Do other people’s feelings matter? Can you tell us more about why you think that?  (Perspective Taking)
  4. Do your feelings matter? Why is that your answer?  (Recalling Personal Experience)
  5. If those 2 girls who are whispering wanted to share a secret, but didn’t want to hurt that other girl’s feelings, what do you think they could do differently?  (Creative Options

Whispering secret wishes to Santa
Whispering secret wishes to Santa
  1. Who do you see in this picture?  What’s happening?  What do you think will happen after this?

Return to the PODCAST.

4-Year Olds Are Ready for SOCIAL – EMOTIONAL LEARNING

Social-Emotional Learning for 4 Year Olds Does Not Have to be Hard!
Shared-Thinking Circle Times for 4-year old’s Social-Emotional Learning
By the age of 4, kids are ready to share with peers, in circle time, how much they know and how self-sufficiently they can choose behaviors that work best for everyone!  They just need (and want) to be respectfully and appropriately challenged!
Kids also want and need to be acknowledged for what they understand, what they perceive as real, true and valid … and they need to express what they understand with their own words … with a group of peers … in neutral shared-thinking class time opportunities – facilitated by adults who, just during these times, do not have the intention to be teaching, but instead have the intention to give all of their attention.
Young Children Have a Natural Need for Quality Attention
How many times have you read or heard about children ‘just behaving this way or that for attention?’ As if their efforts to gain your attention were a negative. Turns out that the more we learn about all the elements of healthy early childhood development, the more we come to appreciate the value of honoring children’s basic instincts, such as their natural need for quality attention.
Validating Proof from History and Human Biology
After World War II, orphans living in a clean, hygienic and basically attentive facility did not thrive. In fact, almost half of infants died, despite apparently having all basic needs met. It turned out that the infants needed at least one meaningful relationship with a caring, and involved adult in order to survive, grow and thrive. Since then, we have learned that Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is released in a manner directly proportional to the amount of caring attention children receive.
Quality of Teacher’s Attention Matters
It is now clearly understood that the quality of the attention children receive from their educators more often than not gives rise to repeated behaviors, as compared to ignored or unnoticed behaviors.  Sooooo … if we are giving our attention – yes, just simply our undivided attention – when kids are thinking together about positive and constructive solutions and outcomes to which they can all relate, surely it should come as no surprise that those solutions rapidly translate into behaviors by the children who – in constructive collaboration – gave voice to those solutions.

Constructive collaboration opportunities prepare children for future successes.
Young children welcome constructive collaboration opportunities.

Challenging Behaviors in Early Childhood Environments

Challenging behaviors are readily adjusted when kids have opportunities to think together.

Young children, even by age 4, generally have strong reactions to always being told what to do … especially when it comes to their feelings and their interactions with others. Their strong reactions often show up as challenging behavior, but it doesn’t have to be that way. It really doesn’t.

From Challenging to Cooperating

The key to successfully creating more cooperation in early childhood environments is to provide young learners with multiple opportunities to discover how much they have in common with peers. This very practical approach is NOT achieved with lectures, books or videos … at least not nearly as effectively as it is achieved with peer group discussions.

We were never blank slates!

"The mind at birth is a blank slate." NOT !!!
According to the old-fashioned way of thinking, children need to be taught EVERYTHING, because they’re ‘blank slates’ at birth.

When children are treated as blank slates, most of them automatically resist.  It’s almost as if they’re wired to resist … but is that such a terrible thing?  Well, sure, it can be, when resistance turns into challenging behavior. But resistance can be interpreted as a signal that children have a solid sense of who they are and how “things” should be. Rather than treating children like blank slates who need to be taught everything, especially when it comes to their behavior, wise educators use relevant peer group discussions as one powerful key to successful turnarounds in their students’ behavior.

Five easy keys to designing successful peer group discussions
  1. Make sure discussions never, ever isolate or point to specific individuals.
  2. Use visual examples of the topic around which you want your students to discover solutions, (Google IMAGES is a great resource for pictures of: pushing, not sharing, pulling cat’s tail, street safety issues, whispering in front of others etc., etc.) but …
  3. … do NOT start discussions about specific behaviors – even though you’re showing a picture of that behavior.  Instead, start discussion with broad where, what, who or how’s the kids will easily succeed at identifying and describing. (Neutral successes are important at this point.)
  4. After a few of those kinds of questions, then everyone is ready to “unpack” what’s going on in the picture you’ve shown them… just be sure the questions are open-ended and non-leading!  If ever the questions you ask are not open-ended, then be quick to follow with, “Why is that your answer?” or “Will you tell us why you think that?”
  5. Paraphrase kids’ answers. Of course, that doesn’t mean ‘parrot’ their answers. It means saying, in your own words, what you think each child said for the purpose of making sure you really understood. (Other benefits of this 5th key: Fully acknowledges each student’s contribution to the discussion.  Keeps you really, reeeeeally listening. Because they’ll be especially interested in how you paraphrase their thoughts, when you add vocabulary-enriching synonyms for their most commonly used words they’ll be paying LOTS of attention.)

Challenging behaviors are readily adjusted when kids have opportunities to think together.
Young children are surprisingly capable of adjusting their own behavior once we STOP telling them what to do …

We all want to belong, and – actually – we all pretty much do… we just need to discover that fact together.

When you get right down to it, we all have a lot more in common than we have differences that separate us. For instance, none of us likes to be interrupted or pushed. None of us really likes to fight or interact with people who don’t consider fairness a value to live by… but …

… trying to reasonably and logically explain that to young kids, who function mostly out of the emotional part of their brains, is rarely – if ever – productive.

The good news is: getting groups of kids engaged in discussions around subjects that really matter to them, with questions that communicate respect for their intelligence and collaborative problem solving abilities …. well, that’s a horse of a different color !!!

Students’ Need Thinking Skills to Solve the World’s Problems

Critical thinking and problem solving skills must begin to be developed early in life.

How do we prepare students, even very young students, to constructively engage with the world they’re growing into? As educators, we must activate and exercise students’ thinking skills many times every day. Not, of course, in overly serious ways, because children must be allowed to develop at a natural pace through the stages of childhood.

Exercising Thinking Skills Can Be Fun and Relevant

Fortunately, there are ways to exercise children’s thinking skills in ways that directly improve their own day-to-day lives.

Thinking skills, like any skill, must be developed and exercised.
Peer group discussions, based on open-ended questions that create curiosity in others’ answers help to hone thinking along with collaborative problem-solving skills.

With the right kinds of questions (and zero lecturing), young children’s thinking skills can be exercised, so those skills naturally become stronger. Questions can and should be about familiar topics – like, how to:  √ treat animals,  √ play fairly,  √ get someone’s attention. The right kinds of questions (non-leading and open-ended) will draw upon children’s hardwired honesty, common sense, and ability to empathize.

Using Critical Thinking to Find Trustworthy Websites

Day-to-day situations and interactions are great starting points for engaging students' critical thinking skills.
When the right kinds of questions are presented, students’ thinking engages around relevant problems and challenges.

By the time students are in middle school they have become much less likely to ask questions around everyday elements of their lives. Why? Too embarrassing to appear ‘dumb.’  No problem. We, as their educators, can present topics of discussion for the entire class, with directives on how to discover the most trustworthy answers.  (DIRECT BENEFITS: Everyone saves “face,” while gaining the benefits of what they need to learn.)

What about Cyberbullying?

How do we get students thinking about the ramifications of their online communications, without lecturing? Peer group discussions with, again, non-leading and open-ended questions helps to bring issues “into the light,” without putting anyone on the defensive. When students consistently receive opportunities to think together, they will come to conclusions, and even solutions, that work for everyone.  Can you think of a better way to prepare them for developing the sophisticated problem-solving skills they’ll need as adults?

We can prepare our students to deal with the world's problems by exercising their thinking skills everyday.
The world’s serious challenges which will require serious thinking and problem-solving skills from today’s youth.

Conversation Starters to Grow GROWTH MINDSET

Conversations, started with open-ended questions have the most positive impact.

Sometimes kids (little ones and big ones) have resistance to our direct efforts to grow their growth mindset. That’s when questions that are actually conversation starters, can help.

Conversation implies all kinds of POSITIVES:     √ Respect for students’ perspective and problem solving abilities    √ Interest in what they think and feel and deal with     √ Engagement with their values, their priorities     √ Trust in students’ intentions     √ Listening, really listening

Listening is most important

When kids receive quality attention, on a regular basis, to express themselves – especially with regard to their challenges – they get to directly experience that they matter. When they feel that all-important sense of mattering, then the effort it takes to overcome challenges is much more likely to matter, too.

Of course, listening to endless, random complaints and whining doesn’t have much value for anyone.

Complain - meh! Problem solve - YEAH!
Complaining is very different from intentional problem solving.

But respectful conversations that start with respectful questions … now that’s a different story.  Try it, and let us know how it goes. We’d LOVE to hear your experiences.

 

Perspective Taking is a 21st Century Skill

Taking different perspectives keeps minds open.

It’s inevitable: people see things differently… even when they’re standing close and looking at the same situation or event. Different perspectives can cause a lot of problems, or they can improve situations. Totally depends on everyone’s perspective taking abilities.

Why are there individual perspectives?

Basically all our experiences – situations, events, what other people say and do – are up for interpretation. Interpretation is based on lots of known, and a variety of unknown, elements: past experiences, culture, faith, family values, personal preferences and previous associations to name a few. Differences don’t need to imply right or wrong … they’re just different. Period.  Even little kids “get that,” when they’re given the chance.

Provide students with multiple opportunities to exercise their own hard-wired curiosity about other peoples’ perspectives – with zero pressure for them to agree. Chances are pretty good that those kids will be inclined to open-mindedly consider others’ thoughts and feelings before arriving at their own final conclusions.

Open-minded people are psychologically and emotionally flexible enough to consider alternative solutions. When open-mindedness is combined with solid self-worth, constructive outcomes are likely.

What would the world be like without different perspectives?

For starters, life would be monumentally BORING. Creativity would be non-existent. But look at the bright side: there wouldn’t be any disagreements.  Zzzzzzzzzz!!!

Is there a way to have the best of both? Of course there is. Bring together groups of peers to objectively discuss situations and challenges familiar to everyone in the group. It really helps to show a picture of the scenario you choose to have the kids discuss. Be prepared with a list of 10-20 questions that respect kids’ intelligence in order to facilitate the most successful perspective-taking exercises.

Questions that communicate respect for kids’ intelligence and problem solving abilities are: √ Open-ended.  √ Unpredictable, but relevant.   Here’s a full example for trying out with your 5-7 year old students.  (Read through all of the questions ahead of time, so you can maintain the discussion’s momentum.)

Check out these additional resources for supporting your success at increasing the perspective taking skills of all grade levels.